Functional Areas of Network Management System
The management of telecommunications network can be divided into five key functional areas of network management: performance management, fault management, configuration management, security management and accounting management is included in the same category.
- Performance Management
Performance management systems are the top-level network management applications. They are responsible for monitoring and controlling overall network performance, both within and across network services. Performance management co-ordinates the actions of the lower level, task-oriented applications to recognise and resolve network performance problems.
The goal of performance management is to measure and make available various aspects of network performance so that inter-network performance can be maintained at an acceptable level. Examples of performance variables that might be provided include network throughput, user response times, and line utilisation.
Performance management involves three main steps. First, performance data is gathered on variables of interest to network administrators.
Second, the data is analysed to determine normal (baseline) levels. Finally, appropriate performance thresholds are determined for each important variable so that exceeding these thresholds indicates a network problem worthy of attention.
Management entities continually monitor performance variables. When a performance threshold is exceeded, an alert is generated and sent to the network management system.
Each of the steps just described are part of the process to set up a reactive system. When performance becomes unacceptable because of an exceeded user-defined threshold, the system reacts by sending a message. Performance management also permits proactive methods: For example, network simulation can be used to project how network growth will affect performance metrics. Such simulation can alert administrators to impending problems so that counteractive measures can be taken.
- Fault Management
Fault management systems are responsible for managing network failures. When performance data and possible alarm reports are sent to the Network Management System (NMS), it categorises and stores the reports and further processes this data. The purpose of fault management is to ensure the smooth operation of the network and rapid correction of any kind of problems that are detected.
ITU-T (M3400) Standard for NMS:
- Receive Alarms
- Persist Alarms
- View Alarms
- Alarms Severity Management
- Alarms Filter Management
- Alarm Threshold Management
- Discovery Management
- Standard Software Interface
- Persist Discovered Data
- Table & Tree View
- View Physical Property of Devices
- GIS & Mapping
Configuring Network Devices
- Reset & Shut Down
- In Service
- Out of Service
CDR Collection and Processing
Data Measurement and Analysis
- Add New Measurement
- View Added Measurement
- Delete Added Measurement
- Data Gathering
- Persist Gathered Data
Secured Data Storing
In practice, there is a variety of graphical tools for handling and analysing the alarm situation in the network. Forexample, graphical viewers can be used to view the alarms, and detailed information on each alarm can be found from an alarm manual.
There are also applications for making searches of the alarms in the database, and for analysing the alarm offline.
3. configuration management
The goal of configuration management is to monitor network and system configuration information so that the effects on network operation of varios versions of hardware and software elements can be tracked and managed.
configuration management maintains an up-to date information about the operation and configuration status of the network elements in the network.Also included is the management of the radio network, software and hardware management of the network elements and time synchronisation operations.
4. security management
security management's purpose is to control access to network resources according to local guidelines so that the network cannot be sabotaged (intentionally or unintentionally) and sensitive. information cannot be accessed by those without appropriate authorisation. A security management subsystem, for example, can monitor users logging on to a network resource, refusing access to those who enter inappropriate access codes.
Security management subsystems work by partitioning network resources into authorised and unauthorised areas. For some users, access to any network resource is inappropriate, mostly because such users are usually company outsiders. For other (internal) network users, access to information originating from a particular department is inappropriate. Access to human resource files, for example, is inappropriate for most users outside the human resource department.
Security management subsystems perform several functions. They identify sensitive network resource (including systems, files, and other entities) and determine mappings between sensitive network resources and user sets. They also monitor access points to sensitive network resources and log inappropriate access to sensitive network resources.
5. Accounting Management
Accounting management's function is to measure network-utilisation parameters so that individual or group uses on the network can be regulated appropriately. Such regulation minimises network problems (because network resources can be apportioned based on resource capacities) and maximises the fairness of network access across all users.